September 28th, 2014

Ultradian rhythms and timings of human REM-sleep stages


Descriptions of dreams and the timings of associated REM-sleep stages have been recorded over a long period of time (more than 1 year). Invariance of the probability distribution of awakenings within a certain period of ultradian rhythm over random sample reveals the influence of the rhythm on the timings of the sleep stages.

        Keywords: REM-sleep stage, noomatter, timings of awakening, ultradian rhythm.


1.   Introduction
2.    Experimental procedures and treatment
3.    Results
4.    Discussion
5.    Devices and tools
6.    Steins asteroid as the source of hypothetic rhythm

1.     Introduction
The biorhythms in living organisms are stimulated by the circadian rhythms of geological origin [1], rhythms of cosmic radiation and other rhythms of environment. Since the present work has been executed as part of investigation into the correlations between dreams and astronomic phenomena, here under consideration are rhythms associated exclusively with the physiology of human sleep. To rhythms of the type we can attribute the ultradian rhythms that stimulate the 90-100 min cycles known as rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep stages and consisting in succession of slow and rapid sleep stages. However, in the present research not the periodicity is stressed but rather the shifts of sleep stages and phases are important as related to the global time; most likely these shifts also depend on some external rhythmical drives.
The aim of the present investigation is/was to reveal the factors that point – directly or indirectly – to the existence of rhythms belonging to the ultradian range and affecting the position of rapid eye movement (REM) stage of human sleep on the scale of global time, since it is the phase during which a person sees dreams.
To achieve this aim, the on-location timing measurements of REM phases have been run in order to obtain the probability distribution for the occurrence of events within the time interval equal to the period of a rhythm presumably located in the ultradian range.
Terms and notions accepted in the text
T – the full calendar period of observation: the time span from April 1, 2013 to May 20, 2014, during which the noises produced by body movements of a sleeping person under test were recorded, read from the end REM-phase audiogram and placed in the database together with the texts of associated dreams.

Ti (i=1,2,3,4) – Lengths of the calendar time as proportions of the full calendar period of observation; these lengths have been selected assuming that there is the equal number of events in each of the lengths – both intersecting and non-intersecting within the full calendar period of observations T. The notion was introduced into the calculation methods in order to estimate the invariance of distributions with regard to the scale of calendar time.
∆Τi – The 9.09 min time span to which the lengths of calendar time Ti are broken down; the span is considered as a period of ultradian rhythm.

ΦT (t) – The density distribution of awakings over the full period T: ΦΤ1 (t) — over the time length T1, ΦT2 (t) — over the time length T2, and so on, with t being the time from the beginning of span Τ, Τi.

Φ∆Τi (t) – The probability distribution for falling of the value t within a minute interval on the time span ∆Τ. The distribution Φ∆Τi (t) is obtained by making summation of those for each separate span ∆Τ within the length Ti of calendar time, with t being the time from the beginning of span ∆Τi .

2. Experimental procedures and treatment

         The tests proceeded as follows. During the sleep of a testee under test all the noises from her body movements were recorded on a dictaphone, the recorded audiogram was analyzed, and singular points on the audiogram that correlate with the REM-phase end time were entered into the database. If after awaking the testee was able to transmit the contents of her dreams, this communication was also stored in the dictaphone’s memory. The awaking time was recorded with the accuracy of ± 5 s from the global time maintained in the equipment by synchronization via internet.
    The length of rhythm span ∆Τ – whose influence on he shift of REM-sleep stages is the subject of investigation – was determined by analyzing characteristic data shown in Fig. 1, where the lines of intersection of the Earth’s surface by the ecliptic planes at the awaking moments are in some sections alternating at approx. equal time intervals. The calculation of this period of alternating events has given the result ∆Τ=9.09 min.
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For the material published see also:

1) -Свидетельство о публикации № 214070101695
2) (eng) -Свидетельство о публикации № 214092801635
3) - PDF
4),rus)- PDF
6) - ePub, Fb2
7) (eng) - ePub, Fb2
9),rus) - Fb2
12), rus) - PDF

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